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1 2 3 








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ExtraSs and Copies of LETTERS from 
Sir John Wentworth, Lieutenant Go- 
vernor of I^ova Scotia^ to his Grace the 
Duke of Portland ; refpe£king the 
Settlement of the MAROONS in that 





Ordered to be printed lOth April 1797. 





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Extraft of a LETTER from Sir John Wentworth 
Lieutenant Governor of Nova Scotia, to the Duke of 
Portland j dated Halifax, Nova Scotia, 23d July 



X7 ESTERDAY Mr. Quarrell arrived in the Dover Tranfport j the other 
* Tranfport arrived the 2ift Inftant, with all the Maroons in good 
Health, and as I am informed very quiet and orderly. It is agreed that 
thefe People remain on Board the Tranfports in this Harbour, until 
His Majefty's Pleafure is communicated rcfpefting them. 

v^- r'.\^^ 

\N* 27./ 



N° 2. 




i" * Copy of a LETTER from Sir John Wentworth to 
\[ the Duke of Portland j dated Halifax, Nova Scotia, 

r astJ^ July 1796. 

^ "'**', Halifax, Nova Scotia, ;• 

y, w I 25th July 1796. ''■* 

My Lord Duke, ?•*:';' -^^0^ 

1BE0 Leave, with great Deference, to reprefent that this Afternoon an 
Arrangement has been concerted with His Royal Highnefs Prince 
Edward, to relieve the Maroons from their Confinement on Board Ship, 
by employing them voluntarily, as Labourers on the Fortifications 
eredting here, at Nine Pence per Diem; Provifions, Lodging, and 
Cloathing being found them. The propofed Pay is adequate, and the 
Whole will be comfortable to them, while a Saving will be made in 
Tranfport Hire and Laboiir.— Probably about One hundred and Fifty 


[ 4 I 


Mrn will engage, and thereby releafc fomc of the Inhabitants to aflift in 
the Harvells and other Civil Occupations, which are now much dif- 
treircd for Want of Hands. 
The grcatcft Care will be ttkcn to prelenre Peace and good Order 

-among thcfe People ; who feem perfectly well difpofed, infonnuch that 
there is not any Caufe to apprehend the Icaft Inconvenience, but on the 
contrary, that very falutary Effefts will be derived from this Meafurc, which. 
His Royal Highnefs being now much engaged, defircs me to reprefentj 
and that he will particularly rrport to your Grace by the HufTar Frigate, 

. expelled to fail from hence -with a Convoy in Icfs than Three Weeks. 

? f.: 

His Grace 
-the Duke of Portland. 

I am, &c. "^ 
(Signed) WENTWORTH. 


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N- 3. 


Extraft of a L E T T E R from Sir John Wentwortm to 
the Duke of Portland ; dated HaliAub Nova Scotia, 
13th Auguft 1796. 

'HE Maroons arc now lodged about Two Miles from this Town, 
with tolerable CoBvcRicnce to themfclves—fcparate from the Inha- 
bitants, and well fupplied with Provifions and fuch Cloathing as is moft 
immediately neceflary, and to be procured here. — This is done by my 
Advice, and under my daily Infpe^ion, by William Dawes Quarrell, 
and Alexander Ochterlony,Erquires, who came with them as Principal 
and Deputy Commiflary appointed by Lord Balcarres, and fupplied with 
a Credit of Twenty-iive Thoufand Pounds, Jamaica :Currency, by that 
Government, for the Ufes of thefe Maroons; which is applied accord- 
ingly as Occafion demands. Thefe Gentlemen are exaeedingly 
interefted in Behalf of the Maroons; judicious, difcreet, prudent, 
and attentive to every Thing that may promote their Welfare. By my 
Advice and Information they purdiafed feveral Eftaf^s within Five 
Milts of this Town, whereon there are Houfes and "Lands cleared for 
Cultivation; which, with Eight or Ten tnofe which we can ercift imme- 
diately, will commodioufly and wariTily lodge ^em~for the enfoing Win- 
ter, and before any cold Weather can trouble them.— Thefe Trafts are 
contiguous, and will comprize upward of Three Thoufand Acres, and 
with the Buildings and Rfpaifs jiccciTary, >vili coft aboot Three Thou* 



( s ) 

fand Pounds Sterling. As it abounds with Wood, botii for Fuel and 
Timber, a Saving will occur in thofe, and in Houfe Rent, of more than 
Two Thoufand Pounds Sterling, before May next ; and an exorbitant 
Advance in the Price of Fuel prevented in the Town, fhould their 
Reftdence here require a Supply. To-morrow I have recommended to 
begin removing feme Families on to their rcfpeftive Habitations, and 
intend to have the Whole of them fettled by Michaelmas ; by which 
Means they will be prepared to cultivate their Lands to effe^ the next 
Year. This Edate bounds on One End upon a pleafanc fifhing Harbour, 
where Fifti may be eafily caught every Day in the Year, of the bcft 
Kinds, and of Seventeen different Sorts. 

Thefe People exprefs great Delight in the Country, and the profpeft 
of being fettled in it. They are perfc6tly quiet, orderly, and peaceable, 
and I have not a Doubt but that they will be more happy than ever they 
were in Jamaica { they declare to me daily, that they are fure all their 
Sorrows and Misfortunes are at an End. 

From long Experience in New England, where the Winter is morefevere 
than in Nova Scotia, I am fatisfied there need not be any Apprehenlions 
entertained of this Climate injuring them. If they are well fed, warmly 
cloathed, and comfortably lodged, I have always found Negroes dire6lly 
from the hotted Coalls of Africa, have grown (Irong and \u(ty in the 
Winter, and that they did not fuffer by it. I have had many Inftances 
of this Faft, enough to eftablifh it, and to leave me not a Fear of Suc- 
cefs in this Cafe, if the Articles I have recommended to be imported from 
England for their Ufe^ can be had here in November next 

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N* 4. 

Copy of a LETTER from Sir Johm Wewtworth, 
to the Duke of Portland} dated Halifax, Nova 
Scotia, 20th September 1796. 

Halifax, Nova Scotia« 20th September 1796. 

My Lord Duke, 

WITH the utmoft Deference I beg Leave to acknowledge the Honour 
of Your Grace's Letter N* 18, dated Whitehall, 15th July 1796* 
fignifying to me His Majefty's moft gracious and beneficent Com- 
mands, for the comfortable Settlement and Support of the Maroons ; 
alfo inclofing Lord Balcarres's Correfpondence for my Information. 

His Majefty's Pleafure for the Prefervation of thefe People, having 
been aifb communicated in Your Grace's preceding Difpatches, and the 
Seafon admitting of no Delay, we diligently purfued neceflfary Means, 
which I had the Honour to repprt to Your Grace N" 28, (Duplicate 
herewith) which I am happy to find exa6Uy fulfil your Grace's InflruC' 
tions* I have therefore now to add, that thele People are all fettled 
in comfortable good Houfes. On the i8th Inftant I perfonally in- 
fpefted them, examined every Family with particular Attention, in- 
quired into all their Wants, explained to them His Majefty's Commands 
in their Favour, and the Obligations which refulted on their Part to be 
faithful, loyal, peaceable, fober, and induftrious Subjedls: Which 
they perfedlly underftand, and I am perfuaded they will honeftly 
perfi>rm, with quite as few Deviations as we Ihould find in an equal 
Number of more enlightened White People, from iny Part of Europe 
or America, and far more eafily reformed. They are remarkably clean 
in their Perfons, Houfes, Cloathing, and Utenfils, and very healthy. 
Some few have died of Diforders and Debility contradled on Board 
Ship i more have recovered, and ftill more been born. 

Provifions are ferved to them weekly, of the beft Quality and ample 
Quantity, with which they are unexceptionably fatisfied. Being expert 
in cutting Wood, they are providing Winter's Fuel from their own 
Lands; many Families have a fufficient Quantity brought to their Doors, 
the reft will foon be equally prepared, which alfo facilitates their next 
Year's Planting. Proper Cloathing is daily making and iffuing in fuch 
Manner as to meet the Climate, until this Article can be fully completed 
by the Arrival of thofe Neceflaries which the Commiflloner wrote for, on 
my Recommendation, by the HuiTar Frigate. 


t 7 ] 

At the Meeting on the i8ih Indant fome Arrangements were dircd^cd 
for their internal good Order and peaceable Dcraeanour— the dcclarcdf 
well-undcrdooJ, and entirely acceptable Bafts of which is, Gratitude to 
the King for Benefits and Proteftion extended to them, and Obedience 
to the Lawst — modifying thefe Regulations fo as to lead them pradualljr 
into the general Operation of the Laws of the Province. The Principles 
of thefe Rules are, that all fmall Offences are to be openly cried before 
Mr. Quarrell and Mr. Ochlerlony, in Prefence of at leaft Three Maroon 
Captains) and if fully proved, the Offender to be delivered over to 
them, informing them what would be the Sentence of the Ltw if the 
Cafe arofe between White Men, explaining the Good that they might 
expert from adopting the fame.-^As their former Habits led to fevere 
Punifhmencs, I have directed that thofe of any cruel Proportion (hould 
be fufpended, until the Cafe was reported to me by the Comniiflioners 
and the Captains who were at the Trial. In my Intercourfe with them 
on this Subjeft, they earneftly expreffed their Wifhes to be inftrufted 
in our Religion, and to have their Children taught to read and write ; 
from whence the happieft Coilfeqiicmies may be expefled. Mr. Quar- 
rell and Mr. Ochterlony fully coincide with me j and I have appointed 
the Reverend Benjamin Gcrrifh Gray, who is to be ordained next' Sunday 
for a Country Parifh, which, at my Rcqueft to the Bifhop of Nova 
Scotia, I prevail on him to exehange*. This Gentleman had a good 
Education in England, is amiable ind conciliating in his Manners, dif- 
creet, patient, and ingenious, and peculiarly accomplifhed for this very 
laborious and difHculr Duty. The Shell of a large Houfe nearly cen- 
tral in the Settlement, is ordered to be made convenient for a Chapel ; 
and the Second Sunday in OAober I (hall open the Church by attending 
Divine Service therein. , . ,< •* v i- l > i }■■ 

In the Corrcfpondence irtclofed to me, I find fome few Marboris re- 
marked for lefs favourable Confideration. — This might have been expe- 
dient had they remained in Jamaica, but Would not be advifeable here. 
I have converfed with thefe, and others the beft informed and mofl fenfiblc 
among them, and cannot difcern any Malice or Revenge in their Senti- 
ments i that they in Faft regretted the War, and thought themfelves pur- 
fuing Sclf-prefcrvation only. In thefe Communications, they mention 
the Spanilh Dogs as Objefts of Terror, from the wonderful Reprcfenta- 
tions of them ; but that they had never fufFered by or even fcen them. 
Indeed,, I rather think they are now afhamed at having been frightened by 
them, and that they would now be efleemed a ridiculous Scarecrow, 

The Government of Jamaica having granted a liberal Sum for the 
Removal, and to commence the Settlement of the Maroons, and ap- 
pointed Mr. Quarrell, Commiffary, and Mr. Ochlerlony AfTiftant Com- 
iiulTarVj to fupcrintend th«fe benevolent Intentions, it appeared to me 



[ 8 I 

expedient chat the Expenditure (bould be cranfa^ed by them, and the 
Monici rcquifitc alfo drawn for by them on the Agent of the Ifland, 
whereto thty were authorized, and a proper Credit, as I underftand, 
lodged with Meflrs. Millegan and Mitchell in London. — This Mode 
appears to embrace the Objects of your Grace's IndrudUon on that 
Point ^ and therefore will be continued until your Grace may be pleated 
to direct vnc otherwife, or thefe Funds are expended. In fuch Nccenity, 
due Care (hall be had in drawing conformable to thofe Direflions. Pro- 
bably thi« may not foon happen, as I believe the Government of Ja- 
maica are fully and gcneroufly difpofed to render the Maroons happy 
in any other Country. Among other Reafons for this Opinion, is the 
judicious Choice of Mr. Quarrell and Mr. Ochterlony, to accompany 
and fuperintend ih« Intereds of thefe poor People. I cannot do ade- 
quate Judice to the aflfedlionate Zeal, unwearied Afliduity, great Judg- 
ment, and perfe6l Difintercftednefs, which thefe Gentlemen invariably 
cxcn, under my immediate and hourly Obfervation« to cfSeA the excellent 
Intentions of their Conftituents } inibmuch that I have not a Doubt the 
truly humane Wifhes of His Majeftj^'s Government herein will be 
fully accumplifhed ; and that whatever Caufes may have removed them 
into thi.s Province, their increafed Happinefs will furely be the Effedk. 
They daily become more fenfible of it, and exprefs to me no other Anxiety 
than their Fears to be removed. Nothing would create fuch Diftrefs as to 
carry them to Sierra Leone } nor could they be prevailed on, by any 
Perfuafions, to return to Jamaica. 

I humbly confide in your Grace's great Goodnefs to excufe fo long a 
Detail, which arifes from a dutiful Solicitude to fulfil the Royal Com- 
mands, in a Cafe entirely new, and comprehending all the Interefts of 
fuch a numerous Body of People { which will be beft promoted by in- 
forming your Grace of their precife and a£tual Situation. ; 

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. I have the Honour to be, &c. '" 

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The Duke of Portland. 

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Extraft of a LETTER from Lieutenant Governor 
.^ Sir John Wentworth, Baronet, to his Grace the 

" Duke of Portland i dated Halifax, Nova Scotia, a4th 
September 1796. 

TH E Maroons are much attached— are imprefled with Hatred to the 
French.— Although they may hence be fafcly trufted, yet their 
"Wives and Children, to whom ihey are extremely attached, bein^ 
Pledges for their Fidelity, they will be advantageoufly employed more 
immediately under my own Infpe£tion, and with a Company of Rifle- 
men, who arc equal to either Maroons or Indians in the Woods and 
difficult rocky Country. . . ....,' 


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Extraft of a LETTER from Lieutenant Governor 
Sir John Wentworth, Baronet, to his Grace the 
' .. , Duke of Portland; dated Halifax, Nova Scotia, 
* 8th 06kober 1796. .^ f , 

TH E Maroons arc daily progreffing in Preparations for the Winter. 
Their Conduft ftill continues to be much better than could be cx- 
pefted; with very little Exception, it is quite meritorious. They will 
be decidedly good Menagainft any Enemy. I am perfuaded they are 
attached to mej and that they are fully convinced, not only their Com- 
fort, but alfo their future Views and Military Credit, depend on their 
-Obedience and Affcftion to His Majefty's Government. 

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In- 33-/ 

•N* 7. 

Copy of a LETTER (N" 33) from Sir John 
Wentworth to the Duke of Portland; dated 
Halifax, Nova Scotia, 29th Oftober 1796. 

Halifax, Nova Scotia, 29th Oftober 1796. 
My Lord Duke, 

*T BiG Leave moft refpeiflfully to acknowledge the Honour of your 
-*■ Grace's Letter, N" 1 9, which will be partly obeyed in my Letters 
N" 28, 29, 30, and 31. . 

It is incumbent on me to obferve, that I am ftill fully perfuaded that 
the Climate of this Country will be found healthy and comfortable to 
the Maroons, if they are well fed, comfortably lodged and cloathed, and 
proper Attention exercifed toward their gradual Inftruftion in the Ha- 
bits of I nduftry, and prudent Ufe of their Benefits} of all which they 
are perfedly capable. 

The Cafe of the Negroes removed to Nova Scotia in the Year 1783 
was entirely different from that of the Maroons : Neverthelefs, upon 
Examination it will be found, that the Refult incontrovertibly juftifles 
my Expedations with refpeft to the Climate upon the Maroons. 

The Negroes brought toward Autumn into this Province from New 
York, and other more Southern Climates, were Slaves fuddenly emanci- 
pated from Mafters, whofe effential Intereft it was to fupprefs and extin- 
guilh every Idea of providing for themfeives, or having any Property. 
With thefe Habits they joined the Army in it's feveral Departments, 
where Obedience and provided Subfiftence were ftill united — here they 
gathered more Diffoiutenefs than oeconomical Difcretion. At the general 
Removal of Britifti Subjedls in 1783 to Nova Scotia, the Juftice of the 
Britifh Government refufing-to leave thefe poor People to the refentful 
and probable fevere Treatment of thofeinto whofe unlimited Power they 
would revert if they remained in the United States, they were conveyed 
hither. At the fame Time an Influx of many Thoufands of His Ma- 
jerty's loyal Subjedls alfo arrived ; all were to be located, and Provifion 
made for their Settlement. The approaching Winter excited Appre- 
henfions, and univerfal Competition to provide Places and Lodgments. 
The Government h e not having had much Experience in fettling In- 
habitants in a new Country, which requires that Sort of local Knowledge 
deriveable from Experience only, were embarraflcd in the Midft of their 


[ " ] 

Endeavours and Exertions to accommodate the People ; Gfcourfethc 
Black People, unequal to folicit and manage as the White People did, 
and habitually lefs confidered, they had not as much Attention as othcr- 
•wifc they might have had, and which was more ncccdary for them for 
the Caufes before liiggelled ; it therefore refulted, that they were late 
located, and without proper Method. The ample Provifions, and fonie 
Cloathingand NecirlTiries which were afforded to them by the Juftice 
and Benevolence of Great Britain, became the Inftrumenrs of their Idle- 
nels and Diflipation, inftead of the Bafis and Means of their Indullry 
and Comfort. Thus circumftanced, they progreflTed flowly in focial 
.(Economy ; yet during the Effervcfccnce and Circulation of Money 
caufed by fo great an AccefHon of People, all poflefling fome, and many 
confiderable Property, the Negroes found Employment and Support. 
;But this State of Things fubfiding fooner than was forefeen, and no 
Arrangement taken to lead into Employment, both White and Black 
People felt the Incoii/enience ; many of the former quitted the Province, 
which the Black People could not do, and they became much im- 

In this Situation the fublimcft Charity difcovcred their Diftrefs, fym- 
pathized in their Sorrows, and, from undoubted and excellent Motives 
of Humanity, extended a generous and liberal Relief to their Suf- 

Unfortunately, however, their Diftrefles were imputed to the only 
.>Caufe which had really been friendly to them, viz. the Climate ; in 
which they were ftill healthy, although poor, and almoft naked. The 
Zeal and AfFe6tion which their calamitous Cafe had excited, overlooked 
this pofitive Feature, and they were moft of them removed, with every 
poffible Care and Comfort, to Sierra Leone, where, I believe, the greateft 
Kindnefs has been continued to them. Yet many more of thofe have 
died, in Proportion to their Numbers, than of thofe who remained here. 
Thefe have almoft ftruggled through their Difficulties, Employments 
having been encouraged for all Orders of People: The Black People 
have partaken of its Ufes, and daily growing into Habits of managing 
and providing for themlelves, they are now }uft as happy and com- 
fortable as any other People of the fame Occupations in the Province — 
they are as robuft and healthy, and have as many and as fine Children as 
the other Inhabitants ; and, with the Exhibition of fome moderate occa- 
fional Aid, where Circumftances may arife to require Relief (poflibly to 
the Amount of Five or Six Hundred Pounds per Annum for Three 
Years to come) I verily believe more real Benefits would be derived to 
die Caufc of Humanity, than from all the Expence that has been in- 
curred for the Settlement of thofe fcnt to Sierra Leone. 








[ 12 ] 

• i' 

Since my Appointment to this Government, I have taken Care that 
they are equally protcfted and encouraged as other His Majefty's Sub- 
jects ; and Slavery being almoft exterminated here, Diftinfiions naturally 
painful to thef: People are gradually dying away. In the Royal Nova 
Scotia Regiment under my Command, there arc many who adt as Pio- 
neers, and are good Men. A Company of thofe refident in and near 
the Town are attached to the Firft Battalion of Halifax Militia, an able, 
daring, and faithful Body of Men. »■ 


^ At Digby, on the Bafon of Annapolis, in my official Progrcfs laft 
Autumn to examine the local Circumftances of the Inhabitants and 
Country, 1 was received by the Regiment of Militia, and on my De- 
.parture attended by a Company of Black Men, well armed, of decent 
and orderly Deportment, and of as good able Stature and Countenance 
-as any other Men. Some few of them were badly cloathed, owing to 
tjnavoidable Misfortunes, which might have been relieved at Eighty 
-Guineas Expence, and every Family made quite happy. In every Part 
t)f the Province where they are fcattered, I have feen them, and never 
fail to enquire minutely into their Circumftances. They often lament 
the Want of Cloathing, or the Want of a Cow, or fome other particular 
Comfort i but I never, in any One Inftance^ have heard them complain of 
the Ciiraate, ' ~? ' 

The Care of the Maroons is far different, and more dellreable than 
thofe People have experienced. Thefe are liberally provided with every 
Neceflary to render the Climate particularly falutary to them. They 
have zealous and kindly difpofed CommifTaries refiding with them, 
wholly devoted to fupply their Wants, to remedy and relieve all the 
Difficulties that muft be expeded to occur in removing to a new 
Country; in changing the Manners of War and Huntingfor thofe of 
Peace and patient Induftry j and in fubmitting to be confidered without 
Terror, or the Self-importance derived from it. Means of Inftrudlion 
and moral and religious Improvement are provided and perfeveringly 
applied to thefe, while thofe were long negledted in this ireiportant Ad- 
miiiiftration, which is.moilof all others to be relied upon for their Civi- 
lization, and focial as ^eil as religious Interefts. I cannot but forefee 
that fome Difficulties and Inconveniencies may frequently arife; and 
-that Pat;ence, Vigilance, Perfeverance, and Difcretion, muft be exer- 
cifed in the Progrefs of their Settlement, and that it will continue to be 
a Source of increafed Care and Attention to me j but as it is anObjeft 
highly intcrcfting to fo important a Part of His Majefty's Dominions as 
the liland of Jamaica, and more efpecially and above all other Confi- 
derations, it; being His Majefty's moft gracioiis Commands to pay every 
Care and Attention to the Comfort and Prefervation of thefe People, 
J. Ihall continue .moft dutifully to exert every poflibk Diligence and 


■ .[ .'3 ] 

Ability to cLcct the Royal Commands, which your Grace has been 
plcafed to fignify to mej and I have not a Doubt but with as much 
Succcfs and Happincfs to the People as thofe moft interefted for their 
Welfare will reafonably expeft can ever be communicated to that 
Number and Defcription. 

All which is moft humbly fubmittcd, with the utmoft Deference, 
hoping for your Grace's favourable Confidcration, and Reprcfcntation 
for HisMajcfty'scondefccnding gracious Approbation. 

I have, &c. 

, " I I'^'lX!^''^ :-l'.^ (Signed) " ''::''- J. Wentworth. 


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His Grace the Duke of Portland, 



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' Tixtraft of a LETTER from Lieutenant Governor Sir 
' ' '" ' John Wbntworth, Baronet, to His Grace the Duke 
of Portland; dated Halifax, Nova Scptia, aift 
December 1796. 

nrMB Maroon* continue to be in good Health, only One old Man, 
* upwards of Eighty Years old, is fick. Their Apprehenfions of the 
"Winter's Severity is entirely done away, by Experience, good Health, and 
comfortable Cloathing and Subfiftencc, which is amply furnifhcd by the 
Arrival of the Stores from London. Every poffible Attention is exer- 
cifed towards their Comfort, which will be greatly increafed hy removing 
them in Families into feparate Houfes and Farms annexed, as foon as 
the enfuing Scafon admits. At prclent there are more in each Houfe 
than would be expedient, owing to the Want of Materials and Artificers 
to build more before the Winter commenced. Every Sunday public 
Worfliip is performed in the Church by the Reverend Mr. Gray, which 
is attended with great Decency and Defire of Inftruftion — fever^l are 
baptized, and fome married under Engagements to avoid Polygamy. 
The School is alfo daily attended by the Children, under Inftrudion of 
Mr. Chamberlain, a Man of Education and excellent Principles, pecu- 
liarly qualified, having formerly been a Teacher to the Indians in the 
Wildernefs of America, but being a Loyaliil, removed to this Place. 
Thefe Gentlemen, with their Families, have, at my Requeft, removed 
into the Maroon Settlement, that, by their daily Advice to ihe Families., 
they may be comforted j all Cafuakies explained, and Modes applicable 
learned to them, which they are made to comprehend without Difficulty, 
as all of them underftand the Englilh Language, and many of them fpeak 
it fluently. From a faithful and judicious Perfeverance in thefe impor- 
tant Inftitutions, I anticipate the greateft Benefits to thefe People j and 
I am fully jufcified in fuch Escpedlarions from the Progrefs already 

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